Defeating the Persians, Athens established itself as the leader of the Greek area and enters a period of unparalleled flourishing. That’s when the “Golden Age” of the Athenian Democracy started which was the basis of Western civilization. The intellectual life of the city was determined by the politicians, philosophers, architects and poets like Pericles, Socrates, Aristotle, Iktinos, Kallikrates, Phidias, Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles, Aristophanes and Simonides. Their work and ideas shaped the history of humanity, while the Parthenon was built in that period.